The "lobster shell" with high damage tolerance came out to inventory the new bionic materials invented by nature

Apr 25, 2022

The "lobster shell" with high damage tolerance came out to check the universe Encyclopedia of new bionic materials invented by nature, science and technology daily, / Xing Xiuyan / 2022-04-11 13:48:57 6029 0

On April 6, the reporter learned from the University of science and technology of China that the team of academician Yu Shuhong of the university put forward the idea of discontinuous bouligand structure for the first time, developed a method of programmed assembly of nanofibers, successfully created a new type of lightweight, high-strength bionic discontinuous bouligand structure nanocomposite, and realized the synergistic toughening of discontinuous fiber bridging and crack deflection induced by bouligand structure. This achievement provides a new assembly method for the development of high-performance structural materials. Relevant papers have been published in the international journal matter.

Brigham structure is composed of unidirectional nanofiber lamellar spiral stacking. It widely exists in bone, fish scale, lobster shell and other biomaterials. It is a typical fiber reinforced structure, which directly determines the excellent mechanical properties of these biomaterials. However, the wisdom contained in the natural Brigham structure has not been fully developed and applied. Compared with the natural Brigham structure, the realized bionic Brigham structure is far from the natural Brigham structure in terms of structural level and structural accuracy.

The researchers have successfully fabricated discontinuous braid nanocomposites by combining helical gel hardened nanoscale fibers and alginate nanoparticles in the sodium alginate matrix and the sol gel film conversion process based on the developed programmed assembly of nanofiber elements. Experiments show that the material shows excellent mechanical properties, which is better than many natural Brigham structural materials such as fish scales, layered bones and crab claws, as well as bionic Brigham structural analogues and some engineering fiber composites. Further, through fracture microstructure analysis and theoretical simulation, it is found that the material shows crack deflection and fiber bridging toughening mechanism.

2. New building materials are made according to the tissue formed by biological cells

Inspired by the working principle of biological cells forming tissue, Austrian architects designed inflatable "cells" made of PVC or thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer. These "cells" are actually components that can form any structure people want. These "cells" are sealed and fireproof, which can block solar radiation. There is a diaphragm between each "cell", so even if one "cell" is damaged, the rest can continue to support the whole structure.

3. Medical material similar to sea cucumber skin

Implanting electrodes into the brain can help treat neurological diseases, but hard plastic implants can greatly reduce the therapeutic effect. American scientists have found a solution through the study of sea cucumber skin. According to the change of surrounding environment, the skin of sea cucumber will change from spongy soft state to very hard state. Scientists have created a fiber that hardens when there is no water, but becomes very soft when it meets water.

4. The wastewater treatment system is made according to the natural decomposition process

Earthworms and beetles can decompose organic matter in forests, prompting an Australian company to find a new method of sewage treatment, that is, the use of live "humus". The sewage biological treatment system does not use chemicals at all, and its sewage treatment efficiency is 10 times that of septic tank.

5. Mimicking the self combination ability of virus

MIT materials scientists use "self-assembly technology" to self assemble harmless viruses into nanoscale electronic components such as batteries and transistors. The principle is that under the control of special proteins, the virus can automatically "end-to-end" to form nano biological filaments, which can be used to make battery electrodes and wires. After using virus as electrode and wire, the battery becomes smaller and has the advantages of transparency, softness and folding.

6. Imitate marine life

Even "waterproof" bandages will partially fail when exposed to water. In order to find a way to make the artificial adhesive patch better stick to the wet surface, American scientists carefully observed how mussels and other marine organisms fixed themselves in the water. Mussels produce filaments called pod filaments, which are very strong and can be attached to paraffin, glass, bones and metal surfaces. Scientists mimic the way mussels work by processing proteins, which produce adhesives that can be used underwater.

7. Learn from plants

In the eyes of many people, carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas and should be committed to emission reduction, but not for plants. Carbon dioxide is an indispensable energy for plant growth. A green plastics manufacturing company in North America also sees carbon dioxide as energy. They use catalysts to combine carbon dioxide from ethanol production with petrochemical raw materials to produce plastics.

8. New polymer surface made from flytrap

Venus flytrap has a thin layer of hair on its surface. When it is contacted by foreign matters, the leaves of Venus flytrap will change from concave to convex, so as to trap prey. American scientists have developed a new polymer surface by imitating the working principle of Venus flytrap. The polymer surface is covered with a microlens. When it is contacted by external objects, the microlens will change from convex to concave, so that the adsorption behavior of the polymer will change immediately.

9. "Green cement" is designed according to coral structure

Traditional cement production will release a lot of carbon dioxide, but the technology developed by a North American company will completely change this situation. Inspired by the ultrastructure of magnesium and calcium in coral, they found a new method to produce "green cement". Each ton of "green cement" * * * can store more than one ton of carbon dioxide.

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Inventory of bionic materials invented by nature

1. Degradable materials produced by fungi

An American company uses fungi to convert agricultural fertilizers into chitin, a hard fiber produced by fungi during digestion. Using this fiber can produce a variety of products, from furniture and computer accessories to more advanced composites. This is a beneficial attempt to use natural fungi to convert waste into degradable materials.